This article's lead section contains information that is not included elsewhere in the article. (April 2021)
Tsat, also known as Utsat, Utset, Hainan Cham, or Huíhuī (simplified Chinese: 回辉语; traditional Chinese: 回輝語; pinyin: Huíhuīyǔ), is a tonal language spoken by 4,500 Utsul people in Yanglan (羊栏) and Huixin (回新) villages near Sanya, Hainan, China. Tsat is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian group within the Austronesian language family, and is one of the Chamic languages originating on the coast of present-day Vietnam.
|Type of tone
|Proto-Chamic final sound|
|55||High||*-h, *-s; PAN *-q|
|42||Falling||*-p, *-t, *-k, *-c, *-ʔ|
Voiceless final: voiced stop / affricate (pre-)initial[a]
|24||Rising||*-p, *-t, *-k, *-c, *-ʔ|
Voiceless final: default
|11||Low||Vowels and nasals, *-a:s|
Voiced final: voiced stop / affricate (pre-)initial[a]
|33||Mid||Vowels and nasals, *a:s|
Voiced final: default
Unusually for an Austronesian language, Tsat has developed into a tonal language, probably as a result of areal linguistic effects and contact with the diverse tonal languages spoken on Hainan including varieties of Chinese such as Hainanese and Standard Chinese, Tai–Kadai languages such as the Hlai languages, and Hmong–Mien languages such as Kim Mun.
- Tsat at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
- Thurgood, Graham (1993). "Phan Rang Cham and Utsat: Tonogenetic Themes and Variants". In Edmondson, Jerold A.; Gregerson, Kenneth J. (eds.). Tonality in Austronesian Languages. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication, 24. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 91–106.
- Thurgood, Graham (1999). From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects: Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change: With an Appendix of Chamic Reconstructions and Loanwords. University of Hawaii Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-8248-2131-9. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Edmondson, Jerold A. (1993). Tonality in Austronesian Languages (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1530-0.
- Thurgood, Graham; Li, Fengxiang (2002). "Contact Induced Variation and Syntactic Change in the Tsat of Hainan". Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. 28 (2): 149. doi:10.3765/bls.v28i2.1033.
- Thurgood, Graham (2010). "Hainan Cham, Anong, and Eastern Cham: Three Languages, Three Social Contexts, Three Patterns of Change". Journal of Language Contact. 3 (2): 39–65. doi:10.1163/19552629-90000019.
- Thurgood, Graham; Thurgood, Ela; Li, Fengxiang (2014). A Grammatical Sketch of Hainan Cham: History, Contact, and Phonology. Pacific Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 978-1-61451-877-8 – via Google Books.
- Zheng, Yiqing 郑贻青 (1997). Huíhuīhuà yánjiū 回辉话研究 [A Study of the Huihui Language] (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai yuandong chubanshe.